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Camponotus cruentatus
While one of the largest European species, they are different from the other Camponotus. They are probably the most thermophile of the genus in Europe (living also in North-Africa). They can be tricky to raise from a single queen as they are more sensitive to stress and have a more narrow acceptable foundation temperature.
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Camponotus herculeanus
Almost exactly the same as C.ligniperda in size and appearance, but without red on the gaster and a preferecece for pine forests in colder areas. They can have some light heating during the summer for faster growth, but do need a proper hibernation. Like most Camponotus species they do very well in Ytong nests.
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Camponotus ligniperda
One of the largest ants of Europe, this is a very imposing species. Not very active in the beginning however and if the colony has enough food for its current brood, workers stay mostly in the nest. The hardest about these ants is the required patience as they develop very slowly and it can take several years to get past a hundred workers.
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Camponotus sylvaticus
A smaller, slightly darker version of C.barbaricus. They are a typicaly 'mid-size Camponotus' and their colony will grow faster compared to their larger cousins. Which also means that their workers will be considerably more active and appreciative in accepting proteins. This makes it one of the easiest European Camponotus species to keep.
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Messor aciculatus
A very easy to keep granivorous species. An East-Asian species, it lacks the typical majors of the European species though also slightly less thermophilic.
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Messor barbarus
As an very easy-to-keep granivore with big red-headed majors, this is often a popular choice among beginning ant-keepers. However, they are a very stress-sensitive species which makes them quite tricky unless they have enough workers (~50) and a few majors. Please keep this in mind when selecting a colony size.