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Camponotus ligniperda
One of the largest ants of Europe, this is a very imposing species. Not very active in the beginning however and if the colony has enough food for its current brood, workers stay mostly in the nest. The hardest about these ants is the required patience as they develop very slowly and it can take several years to get past a hundred workers.
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Formica fusca
One of the most common European species but you'll rarely notice many of them. These fast-moving ants tends to operate on their own, many meters away from their well-hidden nest, usually in dry, open fields where most other species will have a hard time surviving. A very active small to medium-sized species with a lot of character and easy to keep.
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Messor aciculatus
A very easy to keep granivorous species. An East-Asian species, it lacks the typical majors of the European species though also slightly less thermophilic.
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Messor barbarus
As an very easy-to-keep granivore with big red-headed majors, this is often a popular choice among beginning ant-keepers. However, they are a very stress-sensitive species which makes them quite tricky unless they have enough workers (~50) and a few majors. Please keep this in mind when selecting a colony size.